Citizens Climate Radio
About this podcast
A monthly podcast for climate advocates hosted by Peterson Toscano. Become a better climate communicator. The show features Interviews, climate change artists, & a puzzler question. A project of Citizens' Climate Education
About this podcast
A monthly podcast for climate advocates hosted by Peterson Toscano. Become a better climate communicator. The show features Interviews, climate change artists, & a puzzler question. A project of Citizens' Climate Education
Citizens Climate Radio
Ep 57 Bob Inglis The Tide is Rising
Citizens Climate Education encourages bipartisan support for climate solutions. While people on the Left, Right, and in the Middle might disagree on many issues, Climate Change is one that can bring us together. But this is not always easy to do. It requires listening deeply to others who hold views on issues and policies that differ from my own. Bob Inglis is the Executive Director of republicEn.org. He was elected to the U.S. Congress in 1992, having never run for office before and he served a pair of six-year terms (1993-98, 2005-10). In 2011, Inglis went full-time into promoting free enterprise action on climate change and launched the Energy and Enterprise Initiative (“E&EI”) at George Mason University in July 2012. In the fall of 2014, E&EI rebranded to become republicEn.org. republicEn.org is an online grassroots community of over 10,000 Americans educating the country about free-enterprise solutions to climate change. Bob shares some of his own journey about how he got into the climate work, and he tells us about the lessons he learned in reaching out to fellow conservatives. He also reveals to us his thoughts and feelings about the January 6th storming of the US Capitol by supporters of then President Donald Trump. The Art House In the Art House we feature song leaders Annie Patterson and Peter Blood. They are liberal Quakers in New England who have been leading singing for over 30 years. They talk about the songs that motivate and inspire climate advocates. Some are protest songs and others are beautiful ballads. They discuss the role of music in social movements as they offer up their own tiny desk concert. Annie and Peterson are the creators of the Rise Up Singing and Rise Again Song Books. These songbooks take on social justice issues like racism, poverty, inequality, and sexism. See them in action on the Rise Up and Sing YouTube channel. https://riseupandsing.org You can hear standalone version of The Art House at Artists and Climate Change. Good News Report We partnered with Yale Climate Connections to bring us good news out of Hammond, Indiana. After a coal-fired power plant shut down in 2012, the city had to figure out what to do with the site while also replacing the lost tax revenue the plant closure created. They came up with a creative solution. https://yaleclimateconnections.org
Ep 56 Rev Tony Campolo: A Christian’s Call to Save Creation
Rev. Tony Campolo has written over 50 books on topics that have educated and challenged his Evangelical Christian audience. He has been ahead of his time on a variety of social issues. In 1992 he published the book, How to Rescue the Earth Without Worshiping Nature, A Christian Call to Save Creation. In the book, he seeks to help believers see they have a role to play in caring for creation. Rev. Campolo, who is 85 and has never retired, suffered a stroke in 2020. He is at home recovering with the help of his wife Peggy. Before the Pandemic and his stroke, Citizens Climate Radio’s host, Peterson Toscano, was fortunate enough to sit down with Tony and ask him about his 1992 book. Rev. Campolo reveals his frustration with fellow ministers and accuses them of not listening to God’s voice in regard to the mandate to care for creation. The Art House Returning to the Art House is Jennie Carlisle, the curator and director of the Smith Gallery at Appalachian State University along with Laura England, a senior lecturer. They are two of three co-facilitators of ASU’s Climate Stories Collaborative. Both Jennie and Laura appeared in Episode 49 and told us about how in spring 2020 they quickly adapted to the Covid Global Pandemic by putting their annual Student Climate Stories Showcase onto Instagram. Some climate leaders see art straightforward communication tool. But art overloaded with messages about issues and politics can turn out clunky and preachy. How does an artists stay in a creative space? When producing climate arts, what is more important the process or the product? You can hear standalone version of The Art House at Artists and Climate Change. Good News Report This episode we begin a new feature, The Good News Report. Listeners share their climate successes with us. Good news this month comes from Cathy Orlando in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. She is the International Outreach Manager for Citizens Climate Lobby and also the Canadian Director. Slow, steady, and relentless climate advocacy has paid off! If you have good news to share, contact Peterson Toscano: radio @ CitizensClimate.org
Ep 55 Climate Change and Creation Care--What Would Jesus Do?
In a followup to our most downloaded episode, What Does the Bible Say About Climate Change?, host, Peterson Toscano speaks with two Christian women about their faith, their commitment to creation care, and why they see Citizens Climate Lobby as a place where they can pursue meaningful solutions. They talk about their values, the Bible, the spiritual charge to do the work of reconciliation, especially in a contentious and politically divided country. They speak with conviction about the need for Christian believers to take creation care seriously. Kelsey Grant served as a CCL fellow with the Mountain West Higher Education Region. Currently she is a CCL Conservative Fellow and member of the Conservative Caucus Executive Team. At the University of Colorado-Boulder she is a pre-law student, double majoring in Political Science and Philosophy. She discovered Citizens’ Climate Lobby through her church, where she co-founded environmental ministries, taught about environmental stewardship as a Sunday School teacher, and occasionally served as a guest preacher. Andrea Zink is from Tennessee and has spent her professional career working in the non-profit sector for mission-driven organizations such as The Salvation Army, Vanderbilt University, and Nashville Opera. She attends the United Methodist Church and serves on the United Methodist Circle of Grace prison ministry music team and on several UMC Creation Justice work committees. Andrea joined CCL in 2016 when she discovered CCL's bipartisan approach to climate change solutions. The Art House In the Art House you will meet Lindsay Linsky. A Bible-believing Christian in Georgia, she is the author of the book, Keep It Good—Understanding Creation Care through Parables. Through her book she seeks to break through environmental apathy and partisan noise to show Christians God’s simple yet beautiful message of creation stewardship. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/32080425-keep-it-good?ac=1&from_search=true&qid=c2hCzNJnRy&rank=1 We always welcome your thoughts, questions, suggestions, and recommendations for the show. Leave a voice mail at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org See our show notes:https://citizensclimatelobby.org/category/citizens-climate-radio/
Ep 54 Justice, Football, and Talking Trash with Garry Gilliam and Sharona Shnayder
A recent episode of Lew Blaustein’s Green Sports Pod featured a riveting interview with National Football League player, Garry Gilliam. Blaustein writes: "Garry Gilliam experienced this hope-squashing system firsthand during his childhood in the opportunity-deprived section of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Now, the ex-NFL offensive lineman is using his resources and his seemingly boundless energy to try to break that system, replacing it with a more equitable, hopeful one. His system-breaking tool is The Bridge Eco-Village, an innovative start-up that provides opportunities for African-Americans and other marginalized people to “Work, Eat, Live, Learn and Play” in affordable, high quality mixed-use developments. The pilot is being built in — where else — Harrisburg." Lew Blaustein gave us permission to rebroadcast an edited version of his interview with Garry Gilliam. You will also hear Citizens Climate Radio’s host, Peterson Toscano check in with Gilliam to find out how things stand with the Bridge Eco-Village today in light of the Covid-19 Global Pandemic. Garry Gilliam has good news to share about the progress of the project. https://greensportsblog.com/episode-6-nfler-garry-gilliam-tackles-systemic-oppression-environmental-injustice-with-the-bridge-eco-village/ https://www.thebridgeecovillage.com As the Coronavirus pandemic shut everything down, Sharona Shnayder, a college student, simply could not stay inside any longer. One Tuesday she joined a friend at neighborhood park. Together, while maintaining a safe physical distance, they picked up trash at a park in Portland, OR near their university. Not only did people in her community begin to notice and join in; word quickly spread. Now there are Tuesdays for Trash events happening all over the world. Sharona, who grew up in Nigeria and now lives in the USA, shares how picking up trash is bringing people together, lifting spirits, and getting people engaged in climate work. In fact, this may be a project your own climate group wants to take on in order to connect in a new way with your own community. https://tuesdaysfortrash.com We always welcome your thoughts, questions, suggestions, and recommendations for the show. Leave a voice mail at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org Feel free to connect with other listeners, suggest program ideas, and respond to programs in the Citizens’ Climate Radio Facebook group or on Twitter at @CitizensCRadio.
Ep 53 Andrew Stuhl with Lessons from a 1972 Flood and Lynn Neuman is Dancing with Plastic
Andrew Stuhl, an associate professor of environmental studies and sciences at Bucknell University, has been interviewing residents from Pennsylvania’s Susquehanna River Valley about what they remember of the fall of 1972. He keeps hearing about the powerful smell of flood mud. This was the pungent odor throughout the Susquehanna Valley after Hurricane Agnes brought historic rainfalls and a massive flood which upended lives and reshaped towns and waterways. “It reminds me of the connection between smell and memory, and how quickly a memory can come back to you if you smell something in the present day,” Andrew tells podcast host, Peterson Toscano. "I like to think about that as a metaphor for the importance of history and the importance of moments like Hurricane Agnes. They’re always with us, and sometimes they don’t come to our immediate senses, but they can be triggered, and they can be brought up really quickly. I like to believe in the power of memory and history, to mine those experiences, to reflect on them, and recognize and regard them, so we that can walk today in the difficult moments, and get through them.” Andrew talks about his community-based research, the Agnes Flood Project. You will learn why this one storm is still so important, not just for the region, but for the entire country. Lessons drawn from 1972 and the resiliency modeled by local residents during and after the storm will help us in coping and caring for each other during the Coronavirus Pandemic and with the growing risks of climate change. If you or someone you know have Hurricane Agnes stories to share for the Agnes Flood project, contact Andrew Stuhl and the team. They are also looking for pictures from the hurricane and its aftermath. Email email@example.com. This story was made possible through a collaboration with Susquehanna Life Out Loud podcast. The Art House How does an artist decide to do the work she does? How does that work evolve overtime? What impact does it have on the audience and how can an artist deepen that impact? During a recent conversation with dancer and choreographer, Lynn Neuman, Peterson Toscano encountered an artist with boundless curiosity. This curiosity drives her work. As director of Artichoke Dance Company, Lynn recognizes the vital role art plays in addressing issues like climate change. Entertaining and Educating not enough though for Lynn and her company, though. They always want to do more to get people to act. Through community engagement and direct outreach to lawmakers, they are training community members how to change legislation. And in this time of the Coronavirus pandemic Lynn Neuman and Artichoke Dance Company have been adjusting and adapting once again. https://www.artichokedance.org
Ep 52 Doug Parsons on Adaptation, Resilience, and Bouncing Forward
Doug Parsons, the host of the America Adapts Podcast talks to us about what he has learned from nearly 100 episodes interview adaptation experts. He will discuss the difference between adaptation and resiliency. He highlights efforts to adapt to sea level rise, wildfires, and flooding, and points out an impact of climate change that will affect almost everyone at some point in their lives—extreme heat. You will also hear an excerpt from a conversation Doug Parsons has with s Dr. Carolyn Kousky, the Executive Director at the Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center at the University of Pennsylvania. They discuss how wildfires in California drove their utility into bankruptcy and what policy reforms are needed to prevent this from happening again. Doug also reflects climate adaptation in light of the Coronavirus Global Pandemic. What lessons are climate adaptation experts learning? What challenges do they face? https://www.americaadapts.org The Art House Joining us in the Art House is Musician and composer Jason Davis. Jason curates ClimateStoriesProject.org. The site hosts videos from people all over the world. They reveal the impacts of climate change in their lives, and how they are responding. Jason takes some of these stories and composes music to accompany them. You will hear a moving and powerful testimony from John Sinnok, Inuit elder in Alaska. Woven around the story is Jason’s haunting and beautiful composition for the double base. He calls the piece Footsteps in Snow. You will also learn how you can share your own story on the website. Jason wants to hear your climate story. He invites you to explore his site to read other climate stories then consider contributing your own. That website is climatestoriesproject.org
Ep 51 Art and Identity in a Time of Climate Change
Artists take on a unique role in helping the public better understand the many issues connected to climate change. They also play an important part in helping us process our strong emotions about our rapidly changing world. Poet and climate advocate Clara Fang shares her powerful and moving poem, The Children on Why They are Striking for the Climate. She also tells us about the poetry she reads and how it connects her to the natural world. Clara serves as Citizens’ Climate Lobby Student Engagement Coordinator. In her role, she engages students in climate advocacy and helps members conduct outreach to higher education. https://residenceonearth.net Photographer, writer, and climate advocate, Princella Talley tells us about the vital role of art in her life and her work. Her interests in visual art and storytelling started at a young age when observing dolphins in the ocean. After a successful career as a professional writer, Princella worked on a freelance writing assignment that ultimately drew her into the world of climate change and her role as diversity outreach outreach coordinator at Citizens’ Climate Lobby. In her conversation with host, Peterson Toscano, Princella speaks candidly about the challenges of being a person of color in predominately white climate spaces. https://www.princellatalley.com/ Princella is also a business owner of Louisiana Food Fellow, a cohort of change leaders working within local food systems. In Central Louisiana, she partners with community leaders to provide environmental education and implement sustainable and eco-friendly programs in economically disadvantaged communities. Krista Hiser, PhD is a professor of composition and rhetoric at Kapi'olani Community College in Honolulu, Hawaii. She also directs the Center for Sustainability Across Curriculum within the University of Hawaii System. In the spring she taught the course, Landscapes in Literature—Cli-Fi, Sci-Fi, and the Culture of Sustainability. In this episode, Dr. Hiser outlines for us the difference between science fiction and climate fiction and provides examples for each. She also raises concerns about the many apocalyptic narratives that flood the Cli-Fi market and that play a prominent role in climate conversations. She believes there are batter ways to talk about climate change. https://medium.com/@hiser Climate Fiction and Science Fiction discussed in this episode The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Station Eleven by Emily St. John Mandel Generation Z by Peter Meredith We Are Unprepared by Meg Little Reilly The Man with the Compound Eyes by Wu Ming-Yi A Rain of Night Birds Dsena Metzger Flight Behavior by Barbara Kingsolver Mr. Eternity by Aaron Thier — Hear him speak and talk about his novel on CCR Ep 10 Code Blue by Marissa Slaven — She discusses the book and does a reading from it in CCR Ep 33 You can hear Citizens’ Climate Radio on iTunes, Spotify, Stitcher Radio, SoundCloud, Podbean, Northern Spirit Radio, Google Play, PlayerFM, and TuneIn Radio. Also, feel free to connect with other listeners, suggest program ideas, and respond to programs in the Citizens’ Climate Radio Facebook group or on Twitter at @CitizensCRadio.
Ep 50 Big Climate Problems Require Even Bigger Global Solutions
Think of this as a patchwork quilt. Instead of one long main segment, the Art House, and the Puzzler Question, we have sewed together five shorter segments from around the world that each stand alone. Together they tell a larger story. Olivia Oguadinma in Nigeria discusses the role of storytelling in motivating her peers to meaningful action. Through her Gems on Earth podcast she reaches young people throughout Western Africa and beyond. Doerte Wihan, a mother of five and a kindergarten teacher in Berlin, Germany had not given climate change much of a thought. Then she attended a student climate strike with one of her children. This one event launched her into the world of extreme climate change activism. She is now a member of the climate protest group, Extinction Rebellion. She talks about her dramatic transformation and the strength she has found being in community with fellow climate activists. Artist Shane Petzer in Barrydale, South Africa talks about turning trash into art. Through the Magpie Art Collective, he and fellow artists create breathtakingly beautiful chandeliers all made from trash. Two of these hung in the White House in the Obama’s private quarters. During this time of Coronavirus lockdown, Magpie Art Collective have partnered with the Quakers in the Western Cape to create #QuakerPeaceDoves. Find out about how you can take part in the collective remotely and turn your trash into art. And in the USA we feature Solomon Goldstein-Rose. In 2017 at the age 22 Solomon was elected to Massachusetts legislature. After a two year term, he decided he would not run again. Instead he has been ramping up his efforts to get us thinking and acting about climate change. In March just as the Covid-19 Global Pandemic shut everything down, Solomon published his first book: The 100% Solution. A Plan for Solving Climate Change. The book is filled with whimsical and technically accurate illustrations by visual artist and writer, Violet Kitchen. She tells us about the role art can play in change movements.
Ep 49 Unleashing Our Imagination with Hannah Pickard, Dr. Natasha DeJarnett, and Sean Dague
As climate change advocates, our ability to imagine a better future sometimes requires supernatural skills. Still engaging our imagination is essential to stirring up the kind of hope and excitement that inspires others to action. We need to articulate what it is we are fighting for? What is the world we want to create? Through a mind-expanding thought experiment, three guests join us to help unleash our imagination potential. Imagine a world without fossil fuels. What does it look like? What does it sound like? What does it smell like? Hannah Pickard at Boston’s New England Aquarium shares proven insider tips about effective communication strategies. As a leader in NNOCCI, the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation she trains aquarium and zoo professionals how to speak about climate change. NNOCCI is a network of individuals and organizations in informal education, the social sciences, and climate sciences. Dr. Natasha DeJarnett has been a leader in environmental health research for over 10 years. Her positions in national environmental and public health associations as well as academia has advanced research agendas for the environmental health workforce, established successful national climate change and health initiatives, and inspired the next generation of environmental health professionals. In addition, she serves on the Boards of Citizens’ Climate Education and Physicians for Social Responsibility. Sean Dague is software engineer by day, and the group leader for the Mid Hudson South chapter of Citizens Climate Lobby He came to climate action after seeing the impacts of Hurricane Irene and Sandy in the north east. In addition to his work with Citizens Climate Lobby, he's also an En-ROADS Climate Simulation tool ambassador. He's a huge fan of trains, heat pumps, and electric vehicles. Can you imagine a world without fossil fuels? What will it look, smell, sound, and feel like? Share your answers with host, Peterson Toscano. Leave a voice mail at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org Listen Now! (podbean embed code) The Art House Jennie Carlisle and Laura England are both part of the Climate Stories Collaborative at Appalachian State University in North Carolina. “The Climate Stories Collaborative is our response to the growing call for more trans-disciplinary and creative approaches to climate change communication,” they explain. “Our mission is to grow the capacity of our faculty and students to be more creative and compelling climate storytellers.” While many of the students finish with completed pieces of art, Jennie stresses that the process required to produce the art is their primary goal. Of course, they also want to reach out to the wider world whenever possible. At the end of the school year, the Climate Stories Collaborative hosts a showcase for the student artists. This provides them with an opportunity to engage with the wider public in a large gallery space. Laura explains that in the past, students, faculty, and community members would mingle in the gallery to view the art and see performances. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the school closed and the showcase had to be canceled. But like so many others, they adapted and took the showcase online. As a curator, Jennie initially worried about creating a virtual showcase but quickly saw multiple benefits, including seeing viewers become deeply engaged with the art and the artists through their comments. The Climate Stories Collaborative now reaches many more people all over the world through this Instagram online showcase.
Ep 48 Republicans Ready to Tackle Climate Change
For a long time climate advocates faced skepticism and resistance coming from Republican lawmakers. That is changing. In February Citizens Climate Radio host Peterson Toscano traveled to Washington DC for the first ever Conservative Climate Training and Lobby Days. Nearly 100 people showed up from all over the country, young and older. They met with Republican staff and members of congress to talk about climate change and a path forward. In this episode you will hear excerpts from interviews with volunteer lobbyists Carlos Simms, Mary Lawing, Katie Zakrzewski, Isuru Seneviratne, and Cindy Burbank. On a panel of Republican climate leader Alex Flint, the Executive Director at Alliance for Market Solutions spoke during the February event. Mr. Flint previously served as staff director of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. He was the senior vice president of governmental affairs at the Nuclear Energy Institute, and he was a member of President Trump’s transition team. He outlines for us the dramatic shifts he has witnessed while speaking with lawmakers. Jim Tolbert, Citizens Climate Education Conservative Director and Jacob Abel, a Citizens Climate Conservative fellow, provide insider glimpses to the conversations about climate change they have with fellow Conservatives. You will learn what has changed in the Republican party, and the new landscape climate advocates lobbying Conservative members of Congress now face. Guests will share what Republicans bring to the climate conversation and the Conservative values that compel them to pursue effective ways to transform our energy economy. You will also receive advice and learn the ways these conservatives are speaking with their family, friends, and elected leaders about climate change. Puzzler Question We updated last month’s puzzler question and made it more personal. He is the question slightly restated: In a Zoom call you share your renewed commitment to promote climate solutions and ask your friend, Gretchen, to join your group. Gretchen slowly shakes her head and says, “I am concerned about the planet too, but with so many people affected by Covid-19, I think we are just going to have to deal with that first. Climate action is very important but for so many people right now, there are more pressing issues to address.” The dilemma so many of us face right now is that climate action has been eclipsed by an immediate threat to humanity. How are you dealing with this? How are you navigating this new landscape? How are you adapting? What is a resource you have found helpful? Share your answers with Peterson by June, 17, 2020. Leave a voice mail at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org You can hear Citizens’ Climate Radio on iTunes, Spotify, Stitcher Radio, SoundCloud, Podbean, Northern Spirit Radio, Google Play, PlayerFM, and TuneIn Radio. Also, feel free to connect with other listeners, suggest program ideas, and respond to programs in the Citizens’ Climate Radio Facebook group or on Twitter at @CitizensCRadio.
Ep 47 Eco-Grief in a Time of Coronavirus Mourning
How are the impacts of climate change similar to what we are experiencing with the Coronavirus global pandemic? Eight women talk about working through grief to a place of action. They use their expertise to connect the impacts of climate change to what we are now seeing with Covid-19. Guests include: --Dr. Nathasha DeJarnett, Interim Associate Director Program & Partnership Development National Environmental Health Association --Dr. Lise VanSusteren, an American psychiatrist in private practice in Washington, DC with a special interest in the psychological effects of climate change. --Elizabeth Rush, author of Rising: Dispatches from the New American Shore --Solemi Hernandez, Citizens Climate Lobby Southeast Regional Coordinator --Edie Lush, co-host of Global GoalsCast podcast --LaUra Schmidt and Aimee Lewis-Reau, co-founders of the Good Grief Network --Anna Jane Joyner, co-host of No Place Like Home podcast See our full show notes: https://citizensclimatelobby.org/category/citizens-climate-radio/ LaUra Schmidt and Aimee Lewis-Reau from the Good Grief Network, share the tools they use to help climate advocates face the eco-grief that often slows us down. Through their 10-Step Program, Personal Resilience and Empowerment in a Chaotic Climate, they have seen climate advocates breakthrough so they are more energized to do their work. All of the guests share best practices and strategies to help process grief and cope with stress in this time of Coronavirus. Art House In the Art House, writer Elizabeth Rush returns with good news. Her book Rising: Dispatches from the New American Shore has garnered awards and was chosen as the Read Across Rhode Island pick. At the kick off event Elizabeth watched an excerpt of a play based her book. Observing herself portrayed on stage gave her a chance to realize something about her own grief process she had not noticed before. She talks about what she learned and reads selections from her book. Thank you to Raul Diaz Palomar for music from his album Musica Para Poder Contra La Verdad New Puzzler Question On Earth Day in an on-line conversation with your friend, Gretchen, you share your renewed commitment to promote climate solutions. Gretchen slowly shakes her head and says, “You know I am concerned about the planet too, but with so many people affected by Covid-19, I think we are just going to have to deal with that first. Climate action is very important, but for so many people right now, there are more pressing issues..” Gretchen is correct. When people are struggling to pay bills, put food on the table, and as they recover from so many different losses, they often don’t have space for climate conversations. In fact, this has been true for lots of marginalized people for a long time, even before Coronavirus. So this puzzler question is for you to answer for yourself. How do you navigate your climate work as we deal with the impacts of Coronavirus? Send Peterson your answers. Leave your name, contact info, and where you are from. Email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.)
Ep 46 Coronavirus, Climate Adaptation, and a Resilient Tomorrow
The issue on most everyone’s mind right now is Coronavirus or Covid-19. We are witnessing a massive social and political transformation as we respond to the outbreak of the virus. Individuals have rapidly and radically changed their behaviors—from washing hands to self-isolating. Nations and local authorities are each taking their part to stop the spread of this disease. We see in real time how quickly and effectively we can adapt to a crisis. We also are discovering where we have failed to anticipate this crisis that is upon us. The resilience and adaption we see happening all over the world, in our governments, and in our homes, have gotten some climate advocates reflecting on the preparations & rapid responses needed to address extreme weather events and other impacts from global warming. How is Coronavirus similar to climate change? How is it different? Host, Peterson Toscano convenes a panel of experts to consider these questions. --Dr. Natasha DeJarnett, the interim Associate Director of Program & Partnership Development at the National Environmental Health Association. In previous episodes she has helped us better understand public health issues and climate change. Whether she is discussing environmental racism and pollution, the illnesses afflicting coal miners in Appalachia, or promoting mental health in a time of Climate Change, Dr. DeJarnett provides well sourced and grounded information. --Leonardo Martinez-Diaz, the director of the Sustainable Finance Center at the World Resources Institute. He leads the Center’s work to help drive finance into activities that promote sustainability and combat climate change. He served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy and Environment at the US Department of the Treasury. --Alice. C Hill, a senior fellow for Climate Change Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations. Over 10 years ago she joined the Obama administration as senior legal counsel to Homeland Security director, Janet Politano. As a climate change resilience expert, She believes we possess the tools to respond to the impacts of climate change. She and Martinez-Diaz co-authored the book, Building a Resilient Tomorrow: How to Prepare fo the Coming Climate Disruption. In discussing the connections they see regarding our preparations for and responses to protecting the public from Covid-19 and the impacts of climate change, they point out that governments do not properly plan for unexpected future events because of a collective failure of imagination. Martinez-Diaz explains the idea of availability bias, “the difficulty that we all have to imagine things we have never seen before. Therefore, we have a lot trouble planning and getting ready for things for which we have no living memory.” This was true of Coronavirus and is also true for climate change. The Art House Survivor Generations 2165 An original radio drama by the Climate Stew Players. Hear the story of Yuri Ivanovich Petrov. As a boy he survived the infamous 900 Days Siege of Leningrad during World War II. Though he experienced the unimaginable hardships, he also developed inventive ways to survive. The lessons he learned during the greatest crisis of his generation, can help give us hope and guidance for our own. Puzzler Question You are talking to your. friend, Charles. Charles is concerned about climate change but doesn’t know what we could do about it. You explain carbon pricing is a powerful tool to help us decrease fossil fuel emissions. Before you could say more your Charles interrupts, “Are you out of your mind? Did you see what happened in France when they tried that. Those Yellow Vest Protest! It was a political disaster! You really expect that to work here?” How would you respond to Charles? Send your answers to Peterson by April, 15, 2020. You can email your responses to radio @ citizensclimate.org r leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.)
Ep 45 How to Engage Young People in Your Climate Group--A New Jersey Success Story
Concerned about climate change, Princeton University student, Jonathan Lu, and his friends became excited about a particular solution: Carbon Fee and Dividend. Through Citizens Climate Lobby they learned about a proposed national policy to price carbon and give the revenue back to households. That inspired them to ask, Could this be done in New Jersey? Having a good idea is one thing, but doing all the hard work to make it a reality is quite another. Jonathan and his friends realized they needed help researching New Jersey state law. They also needed to speak with over 100 stake-holders all over the state. They wanted to make sure idea for legislation would appeal to as many different groups as possible. Luckily they found a group of hard-working, intelligent, and creative people who enthusiastically joined the cause. People like Ahan Raina and Aurora Yuan. At the time they were both 15 years old. Our host, Peterson Toscano, chats with Jonathan, Ahan, and Aurora, members of New Jersey Student Climate ActionNJSCA. They and scores of high school and college students are working on the New Jersey Climate Investment and Cash Back policy. In addition to applying what they are learning in school about climate change, economics, and civics, they are discovering just how challenging it is to devise a bill that appeals to as many people as possible. They are committed to seeing households benefit once carbon pricing begins in the state. The Art House Irish author, Shirley McMillan wanted nothing to do with climate change. A busy mom with a young child, she recoiled when Peterson Toscano first initiated a conversation with her about climate change six years ago. She did not deny the reality or seriousness of climate change, but it all felt too much. She was also uninspired by the many suggestions for how women can do all the hard work to lower the family’s carbon footprint. Then something changed; Shirley began to see climate change as something more than just an environmental issue; she realized how it is also a human rights issue. Like Shirley, your friend, Heather, told you she wanted nothing to do with your climate work. She also had a limited view of what that work looks like: “Don’t take this the wrong way, but I don’t have time for climate work. I feel bad saying that but I work full time and I have two children still in school. I don’t have time for protesting right now” Hear what listeners had to say to Heather. New Puzzler Question You are talking to your friend, Charles. Charles is concerned about climate change but doesn’t know what we can do about it. You explain how carbon pricing is a powerful tool to help us decrease fossil fuel emissions. Before you could say more Charles interrupts, “Are you out of your mind? Did you see what happened in France when they tried that. Those Yellow Vest Protest! It was a political disaster! You really expect that to work here?”How would you respond to Charles? Send Peterson your answers. Leave your name, contact info, and where you are from. Get back to him by March, 15, 2020. You can leave a voice mail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) or email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org
Ep 44 The Extraordinary Marshall Saunders
On October 20th 2007, after having a revelation about the severity of climate change, Marshall Saunders launched Citizens Climate Lobby. He then inspired over one hundred thousand everyday citizens to appeal directly to members of congress. He helped empower them to offer a bold and straight forward solution to address climate change. Everyone who met Marshall, heard him speak, and worked beside him walked way with determination and a deeper belief in their own ability to change in the world. On December 27th, 2019 at the age of 80, Marshall Saunders passed away at his home in Coronado, California. As host of Citizens Climate Radio, Peterson Toscano had the pleasure of sitting down to record interviews with Marshall multiple times. In these lively conversations, Marshall's voice is filled with kindness, wisdom, tenderness, insights, and mirth. Whenever Marshall spoke about CCL, he expressed an unshakable faith in individuals to do far more than they ever imagined possible. As a leader, he influenced hundreds of thousands of volunteers to believe something outrageous—that cooperation in the US congress leading to bipartisan climate legislation was not only possible, but inevitable. For our main section we return to the beginning and bring you an intimate, moving, and at times hilarious conversation with Marshall Saunders, founder of Citizens Climate Lobby, and Mark Reynolds, the executive director. They reveal their origin stories. Highly ambitions and successful businessmen, they seemed unlikely candidates to head up an organization that puts relationship-building and climate advocacy at its heart. The Art House Days after the 2016 US presidential election, Peterson interviewed Marshall again and asked if Marshall book recommendations for listeners. Instead of suggesting books of non-fiction about climate, policy, or civics, Marshall immediately pointed to a 19th Century novel. He encouraged listeners to consider Leo Tolstoy’s Resurrection. The book is about a man who loses his way in the midst of a quickly changing industrial world. Tolstoy’s most philosophical work, Resurrection reveals flawed characters in need of redemption and the wisdom they discover as they find their way back to the places where they belong. South African author, Glen Retief reads excerpts from the novel. Puzzler Question You are at a political rally chatting with a new friend. Let’s call her Heather. When you ask her if she wants to join your climate group, she says, “Don’t take this the wrong way, but I don’t have time for climate work. I feel bad saying that but I work full time and two children still in school, I don’t have time for protesting right now. It sounds like Heather as a limited view of what climate work looks like. How would you respond to Heather? Send Peterson your answer by February 15, 2020, along with your name, contact info, and where you are from. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can hear Citizens’ Climate Radio on iTunes, Spotify, Stitcher Radio, SoundCloud, Podbean, Northern Spirit Radio, Google Play, PlayerFM, and TuneIn Radio. Also, feel free to connect with other listeners, suggest program ideas, and respond to programs in the Citizens’ Climate Radio Facebook group or on Twitter at @CitizensCRadio. If you listen on iTunes, please consider rating and reviewing us! For a complete blog post with links visit: https://citizensclimatelobby.org/category/citizens-climate-radio/
Ep 43 From the Oil Fields in Venezuela to Climate Justice in the USA—Solemi Hernandez
In this episode you will meet a fellow climate action figure. Solemi Hernandez finds great joy and fulfillment in the climate work she does. In hearing some of her own story, we hope it inspires you in your own. Originally from Venezuela, Solemi has lived in the US state of Florida for the past 17 years. She seeks to improve conditions for immigrant farm workers. She is also raising her two sons, and Solemi has taken on a very big mission. She wants to save the world starting in her own community. Like her father and grandfather before her, Solemi worked for the oil industry in Venezuela. In fact, she grew up in an oil town and saw firsthand the environmental and health hazards that came with the well-paid oil jobs. Once the oil industry became nationalized, Solemi moved to the USA and started on a very different pat—as a social justice minded environmentalist. She began to volunteer with various groups including the Water Keepers Alliance and the Sierra Club. She helped create a local chapter of The Pachamama alliance, an umbrella organization that connects environmental and social justice organizations to work in the community. She also volunteered for Citizens Climate Lobby. Her concerns for her community and her passion to address climate change deepened in 2017 when she and her family endured a category 5 storm, Hurricane Irma. For three days the family lived in an emergency shelter in a public school that eventually also flooded. They returned to a devastated neighborhood. Their house survived the storm the region was without electricity for three weeks. With sweltering temperatures and limited supplies and resources, she and her community worked together to take care of each other. Solemi speaks about the added risks marginalized people face who do not have the income and mobility necessary to escape the storms and then to rebuild. Solemi admits that climate work is challenging, but she has found purpose and meaning in the climate work she is doing. Her enthusiasm is contagious, and her story is inspiring. The Art House Playwright Chantal Bilodeau returns to the Art House. Every two years to coincide with the UN COP meetings, Chantal and her team organizes an international event, Climate Change Theatre Action. They select 50 short climate change themed plays from 50 playwrights around the world. This fall over 200 communities organized events in 30 countries where they read some of these plays. Chantal shares highlights along with good news about how the movement is growing both in and outside of the theatre community. A book with all 50 of the 2019 plays will be published in 2020. The collection of 50 plays from 2017 is available now. Puzzler Question We hear your answers to a question about what household might do with a carbon dividend. Your friend Darren thinks given out a dividend is a bad idea. He says, "People will just use the dividend they get to continue paying for fossil fuels. Giving them money enables them to stay in their fossil fuel lifestyles. Hear what listeners had to say. New Puzzler Question You are at a political rally chatting with a new friend. Let’s call her Heather. When you ask her if she wants to join your climate group, she says, “Don’t take this the wrong way, but I don’t have time for climate work. I feel bad saying that but I work full time and two children still in school, I don’t have time for protesting right now. How would you respond to Heather? Send Peterson your answer by January 15, 2020, along with your name, contact info, and where you are from. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.)
Ep 42 Better Angels Bridging the Political Divide
Adam Rosenbalm and Austin Ramsey study at East Tennessee State University (ETSU.) After the 2016 election it seemed the country was more polarized than ever. Conversations quickly became debates that led to arguments. Both Adam and Austin wanted to do something about the partisan divide between Conservative and Liberal Americans. Fortunately they learned about a new group called Better Angels. After attending a Better Angels’ event, Adam and Austin decided to bring the Better Angels’ style of debate to the ETSU campus. They hosted the first-ever Better Angel’s debate on a college campus. They chose a hot button topic that drew a large audience: guns on campus. Throughout the debate students were given space to share their feelings about the topic and raise questions. What often becomes a heated debate where people walk away angry and further divided instead became a space of deeper understanding and friendship. Because of skillful facilitation and clear guardrails that kept the conversation moving forward, the ETSU Better Angels gun debate was a huge success. After that initial success, Adam and Austin organized debates on other topics. They share with Citizens Climate Radio host, Peterson Toscano, some of the insights they have learned that help them to foster civil discourse that results in genuine understanding and appreciation of people on the other side of an issue. They also talk about climate change and the challenges that must be overcome when organizing an effective dialogue between Conservatives and Liberals. The Art House Being a climate advocate can be very difficult. How do you maintain hope in the face of bad news and apathy from those around you? Where do you find encouragement and inspiration? What role can faith play in our climate work? These are the questions Rev. Dr. Leah D. Schade and Rev. Dr. Margaret Bullitt-Jonas the editors of a new anthology of essays by climate change faith leaders, wanted to answer. They bring together 21 climate leaders in the book, Rooted & Rising: Voices of Courage in a Time of Climate Crisis. Contributors include Dr. Katharine Hayhoe, Rev Fred Small, Cristina Leaño, and Rabbi Shoshana Meira Friedman. In the Art House the editors speak briefly about the book, and then contributors, Dr. Nathasha DeJarnett, a research coordinator at the National Environmental Health Assocation reads a portion of her essay, “The View from My Window. Corina Newsome, from Young Evangelicals for Climate Action shares how her hope was rekindled through the process of writing her piece, “The Thing with Feathers.” Once she received her copy of the book and read the other essays, she found even more hope. Get your copy here: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/45834238-rooted-and-rising Puzzler We hear answers to last month’s puzzler: System Change, Not Climate Change. What does that even mean? New Puzzler Question You are talking to your neighbor, Darren. You explain the many possible ways of we can address climate change. One proposal is to charge energy companies a fee when they extract fossil fuels. The money collected then goes to households. You say this carbon fee and dividend plan will serve as an incentive to switch over to cleaner sources of energy. Darren replies, “Well that’s stupid. People will just use the dividend they get to continue paying for fossil fuels. Giving them money enables them to stay in their fossil fuel lifestyles?” What do you have to say to Darren? Send Peterson your answer by December 15, 2019, along with your name, contact info, and where you are from. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.)
Ep 41 Tuskegee University Research Breakthrough
Tuskegee University is a historically Black University in Alabama founded in 1881. From the early work of George Washington Carver, Tuskegee has trained generations of researchers who are unraveling mysteries from the natural world. Dr. Carver wrote, “I love to think of nature as an unlimited broadcasting station, through which God speaks to us every hour, if we will only tune in.” Two researchers have been tuning in and made a series of extraordinary discoveries all from agricultural waste. Out of the muck Dr. Michael L Curry, Dr. Donald White, and a team of other researchers found a natural alternative to plastics, one that will biodegrade in less than 100 days. This will keep us from adding even more pollution to a very polluted world. Further researched revealed this material also has other extraordinary properties. According to Business Alabama, "Scientists working at Tuskegee University have found a bio-based material that shows promise for capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere — a more immediate solution to climate change than revamping land and forestry usage or geo-engineering.” Host Peterson Toscano chats with Dr. Curry and Dr. White. They discuss their findings and the important ethical issues that must be considered when introducing a new product into the marketplace. Hear an informative and inspiring conversation with two researchers who are actively seeking solutions for the challenging problems we face. Dr. Curry and Dr. White continue in the tradition of George Washington Carver and the many curious, well trained, and highly skilled researchers at Tuskegee University. The Art House Helping the public engage in climate change requires skillful communication and a lot of creativity. One troupe of performers in Northern Europe decided to break out of the box altogether. In the Summer of 2019 they presented a performance piece in Norway and Denmark. Instead of bringing the audience into a theatre, Acting for Climate took their show to eight different harbor. For a stage, they used a very large wooden boat. Into the Water is a theatrical circus performance aimed at raising ecological awareness. In addition to the performance, they organized festivals at each of the harbors. Acting for Climate members Abigael Rydtun Winsvold and Nathan Biggs-Penton recreate the performance for our listening audience. Hear about the circus artists and their amazing feats as they climb the eight-story high mast, do acrobatics, and take the audience on a wild and moving ride. After each performance, the troupe connected with the audience for further discussion. Abigael found the response to be better than she imagined, "People came up to us and said that they were really really touched. Even sixty-year-old men, which I don’t normally see crying. I barely have seen anyone I don’t know crying in this age group. They came up to us and said, 'Wow! I’m really touched. I’m just going to take a walk and cry for myself right now.' That was really touching for us to hear people were touched by the performance, not only excited, but also shaken a bit somehow." https://www.actingforclimate.com Puzzler Question We will extend the puzzler question from last month. After attending the recent climate strikes, imagine you run into your cousin, Kristan. She saw news reports about events around the world. She says, “I love the sign ‘system change not climate change,’ but it seems like a total fantasy. They expect everyone to go vegan or something? What systems can we change that will make any difference with climate change? ” Kristan needs some help envisioning the kind of change that you are pursuing. How would you answer her? Send Peterson your answer by November 15, 2019, along with your name, contact info, and where you are from. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.)
Ep 40 Fashion and Climate Change with Tatiana Schlossberg and Climate Poetry with Catherine Pierce
Tatiana Schlossberg is the author of the new book, Inconspicuous Consumption. She highlights just how good we are at being bad, and outlines how much polluting happens in four major industries, Fuel, Food, Internet, and Fashion. In looking at the vast world of fashion, Tatiana focuses on specific sectors. First she dives into the world of denim and synthetics. She also talks about the growing industry of fast fashion. https://www.tatianaschlossberg.com The Art House Poet Catherine Pierce describes the process she took to create her poem, Anthropocene Pastoral. She co-directs the Writing Program at Mississippi State University and comes not the podcast to reveal the often secret world of poetry. Host, Peterson Toscano was Inspired by the podcast, Song Exploder. They invite a musician to unpack a song and talk about almost every aspect of it and the creative process. In the Art House, Catherine does something similar for us with her climate change themed poem, Anthropocene Pastoral. She then reads the poem. https://www.aprweb.org/poems/anthropocene-pastoral http://www.catherinepierce.net Puzzler Students from Susquehanna University answer the puzzler question. Victor, a middle school student is freaking out because of climate change. What does he need to hear? We also get inspiration from elementary students at the River Valley Nature School who gave a presentation at the Climate Strike event held in Lewisburg, PA. New Puzzler Question: After attending the recent climate strikes you ran into your cousin, Kristian. She saw news reports about events around the world. She says, “I love the sign—system change not climate change, but it seems like a total fantasy. They expect everyone to go vegan or something? What systems can we change that will make any difference with climate change? ” Kristian needs some help envisioning the kind of change that you are pursuing. How would you answer Kirstian? Leave your name, contact info, and where you are from. Get your answer in by October, 15, 2019. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can hear Citizens’ Climate Radio on iTunes, Spotify, Stitcher Radio, SoundCloud, Podbean, Northern Spirit Radio, Google Play, PlayerFM, and TuneIn Radio.
Ep 39 Envisioning and Communicating Climate Success
Climate Communication experts Blair Bazdarich from the San Francisco Zoo and Hannah Pickard at Boston's New England Aquarium share proven insider tips about effective communication strategies. They are both leaders at NNOCCI, the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation. They train aquarium and zoo professionals how to speak about climate change. NNOCCI is a network of individuals and organizations in informal education, the social sciences, and climate sciences. They are currently working in 170 institutions in 38 states. NNOCCI members reach over 190 million people each year. In this episode Hannah and Blair share the techniques they have been using, including a “values-first” approach. Through NNOCCI’s research, they identified two motivating values that prove highly effective in opening up conversations with members of the public. The first value is Protection—we feel a strong need to protect the people and places we love. And the second is Responsible Management. We value solving problems earlier before they become too big. Hear this conversations to gain value lessons from leaders in the field of climate communication. The Art House We need to reduce localized pollution and heat-trapping greenhouse gases globally. So how do we build the political will so that the public clamors for legislation and policy that will change how we get and use energy? We need to communicate to the public what success looks like. Envisioning success in our climate work though requires imagination. To help us with this task Sean Dague, the group leader for the Mid-Hudson South chapter of Citizens Climate Lobby, leads us through a powerful exercise. He asks us, What does a decarbonized world look like? What does it smell like? What does it sound like? Once you hear Sean’s vision of a successful future, we invite you to continue the exercise. Try some creative writing. Write a short story or a letter from the future about what you see, smell, and hear. Maybe create visual art, a drawing or painting. If you can’t draw or paint, get images from magazines and on-line then create a collage. Write a song, create a map, choreograph a dance. Use art to capture a vision of a decarbonized world. Even if you do not see yourself as an artsy person, just try it. Towards the end of his life, writer Kurt Vonnegut would say, "Everyone should practice art because art enlarges the soul." PLEASE feel free to share your art with our host, Peterson Toscano, and let him know if I can share it with listeners, on the podcast, Facebook, and Twitter. If you have art from this exercise to share or if you have idea for the Art House, feel free to contact Peterson at radio @ citizensclimate.org Puzzler Joining us to answer last month’s question about climate adaptation is Doug Parsons, the host of the America Adapts podcast. New Puzzler Question You just spoke to a group of middle school students about your climate change work. During the Q&A a student named Victor says, “I am freaking out because of all the bad stuff I am seeing and it seems like it is just getting worse and worse. I really do not see the point of even trying anymore. I think we are too far gone. What difference does this make?” Lots of people young and old feel the same way. So how do you respond to Victor? How can you validate his fears while also giving him reasons to hope and pursue solutions. Send us your answers. Leave your name, contact info, and where you are from. Get back to Peterson by September, 15, 2019 Email: radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less: 518.595.9414. (+1 if calling from outside the USA.) You can hear Citizens’ Climate Radio on iTunes, Spotify, Stitcher Radio, SoundCloud, Podbean, Northern Spirit Radio, Google Play, PlayerFM, and TuneIn Radio.
Ep 38 Lew Blaustein and the Green Sports Movement
Lew Blaustien, editor of Green Sports Blog, is very concerned about climate change. A sports nut since childhood, Lew began a career in sportscasting, and eventually settled into the marketing side of professional sports. There was nothing in his background to suggest he would turn into a passionate climate advocate. The 911 attacks on New York City in 2001 though changed everything for him. You will hear about how that traumatic event set him on a new career path. In this lively interview you will hear Lew brimming with enthusiasm as he reveals a growing trend in the professional sports world. More and more athletes, teams, and leagues are working hard to address environmental concerns. You will also hear from professional skier, Angel Collinson. Through Protect Our Winters she has been speaking to members of congress. In speaking with lawmakers and how many are concerned about climate change, she has become more determined than ever to speak out about the issue. Inspired by athletes like Angel Collinson and Milwaukee Brewers pitcher, Brent Suter, who we featured on Episode 37, Lew and other in the green sports movement are urging teams and players to take the next step—speak directly about climate change and endorse the policies that will address our dangerous pollution problems. The Art House Poet liz gonzález joins us in the Art House. Her background is important to her work. She describes herself as “a fourth generation Southern Californian on my mother’s side and the daughter of a Mexican immigrant father who died when I was three.” A teacher of creative writing through the UCLA Extension Writers Program, liz writes poetry and creative non-fiction. Through her writing liz captures the beauty and the challenges of a rapidly changing landscape. For the Art House she reads from her book, Dancing in the Santa Ana Winds: Poems y Cuentos New and Selected. She explains how the power of the Santa Ana winds serves as a metaphor for the early years of liz’ marriage. She also reads a poem from the anthology, Fire and Rain: Ecopoetry of California. Though she is very passionate about the suffering that comes from pollution and climate change, liz reveals how difficult it is for her to write about social justice issues. “It has to just happen naturally. I can’t sit down and decide I want to write it. It always ends up sounding preachy, and there are people who do it so much better.” Experience the natural beauty liz recreates in her writing and learn about some of the challenges artists like liz face in a time of climate change. New Puzzler Question On Facebook you reconnected with a childhood friend, Lydia. She has become worried about climate change and is wondering about what she can do right now to prepare for the effects of climate change. While she admires your work in mitigating climate change, she feels a growing interest in adaptation. Lydia asks you, “What are ways I can help my community to get ready for climate change?” This is a big question and hopefully the beginning of a larger discussion about climate adaptation. What are some ideas you have for Lydia? Where might she start in adapting to climate change? You’re welcome to answer either or both. Send Peterson your answers by July 15, 2019, along with your name, contact info, and where you are from. You can email your answers to radio @ citizensclimate.org or leave a voicemail of 3 minutes or less at 518.595.9414 (+1 if calling from outside the USA).