Illuminate Community Church
About this podcast
Illuminate Community Church Podcast - Pastor Jason Fritz - Scottsdale, AZ
About this podcast
Illuminate Community Church Podcast - Pastor Jason Fritz - Scottsdale, AZ
Illuminate Community Church
4/4/2021 - Easter at Illuminate
The significance of Easter is all about victory over death. Jesus’ resurrection was the confirmation of all that he said and did. It gave undeniable proof that he was the Son of God. But there’s more. His resurrection means eternal life is granted to all who believe in Him. Now that’s reason to celebrate!
4/2/2021 - Good Friday at Illuminate
“It is finished.” – Jesus So many things in life seem to go unfinished. So what do these final words from Jesus actually mean? He wasn’t simply referring to the end of his pain and suffering. It means the plan of God to redeem man has been completed. There is nothing left to do. (Read that last sentence again.) When Jesus finished his work on the cross your work was done also. You can stop trying to earn your way to God. Jesus did the work for you. Now you see why these are the three most important words ever spoken. “It is finished.”
3/28/2021 - What’s Your Approach? - Hebrews 12
Our Palm Sunday message this year comes from Hebrews chapter 12. After reading the text you might be thinking it’s an unlikely place. As you know, the world is tumultuous and things are always changing. Circumstances, careers and relationships are often not what we want them to be. As you get older the challenges seem to come at you daily. When Jesus rode into Jerusalem on that first day of the week the crowd was whipped into a frenzy. They had problems like we do and they thought Jesus was going to remove all those problems. The thing they missed was the real problem. The real problem is that they were separated from God because of their sins. The people wanted Jesus to restore their national pride. Jesus was going to lead the revolution! Instead, he came to lead a revolution of the heart. The people were not buying it and in their disappointment some of these same people in just a few days will be screaming, "Crucify him!" A few decades after this, our author is writing to a group of believers that have had their faith shaken and they are ready to throw in the towel. They are living in tents because their homes were plundered and some are in prison. The author writes in an effort to strengthen them and encourage them not to give up. He wants to help them stand solid when everything around them is crumbling. Perhaps that’s exactly how you feel. You’ve got things happening in your life and you feel like the rug is being pulled right out from underneath you and you have no idea how you are going to land. From your viewpoint it doesn’t look good. Your point of view is determined by where you are looking. “Look to Jesus,” says the preacher. Through Jesus we have access to God like never before. The ancient Israelites approached God with “fear and trembling” but we come with confidence. We are reminded that the blood of Abel cries out, “Revenge!” The blood of Jesus cries out, “Forgiven!” When approaching God we are made small in the best possible way. That is to say, we are exposed for who we really are. At the same time God makes us big because in spite of our of mistakes, failures and self absorbing tendencies; we are his joy!
3/21/2021 - Take A Seat - Hebrews 8
Jesus takes his place... There's a small detail included in Hebrews chapter 8 and verse 1, but it has huge implications. Let's see if you can spot it.. Now the point in what we are saying is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, I'll give you a clue. It has to do with the posture of Jesus. Yes, he is seated. That's key. One of the things that makes this book difficult to understand is that you and I don’t have the mindset of a first century Jew. One of my Jewish friends always enlightens me when we talk, being from a Jewish home and far more familiar with the Jewish mindset than me. So let me help you understand what’s being said here because it is a statement with enormous consequences. If this New Covenant is going to be better, it must have a superior priest. How do we know Jesus is superior? Because of this phrase: “one who is seated.” Seems innocuous doesn’t it? But the author is saying this - of all the things we have said about priesthood this is the sum. It’s as if he’s saying we’ve talked a lot about priests, we’ve said a lot of important things, but here’s the most important feature about Jesus as a priest – he is sitting down. The highest proof of his superiority is that Jesus pulls up a chair. Why is that? Because priests never sat down. Listen to Hebrews 10:11-12... And every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, You see the priest never finished his work. He could never sit down because the job was never done. He just had to keep offering more and more sacrifices because the sacrifice was only good until your next act of sin. And it just kept going and going and the priest never took a break. The tabernacle was the place where these priests offered sacrifices and there were no seats in it. How does this relate to you and me? These believers were facing the temptation to turn away from Jesus and to turn toward familiar acts to gain God’s favor. The author says, “That old life is not where it’s at. Jesus makes all things new. Why would you go back to the old? Look at what Jesus has done for you. He’s built an indestructible bridge between you and God and that bridge is labeled: forgiven. He did his work and sat down. There’s nothing for you to do either. You can’t earn your salvation. Jesus is the one who said, 'It is finished!'” So it’s not about this constant striving to attain God, rather it’s about seeing the beauty of what Jesus did for you and embracing that. He took a seat because his work of atonement was done forever!
3/14/2021 - Pay the Piper - Hebrews 12:1-29
Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God. - Hebrews 12:1-2 Keeping faith is an ongoing and daily struggle. Trusting God and His promises, abiding in Jesus, dealing with temptation and sin, being anxious for nothing, doing everything for the glory of God – it's like an endless battle. Actually, it’s more like a marathon. That’s how the Apostle saw the life of faith – as a race. At the beginning of this ministry, he saw what was ahead as a race…"I do not account my life of any value nor as precious to myself, if only I may finish my course (a race course, track) and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the gospel of the grace of God.” (Acts 20:24) When he was called on to defend his ongoing ministry, he painted the picture as a marathon…"Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one receives the prize? So run that you may obtain it. Every athlete exercises self-control in all things. They do it to receive a perishable wreath, but we an imperishable. So I do not run aimlessly…But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others myself should be disqualified.” (1 Corinthians 9:24-27). And when he knew his earthly life was coming to an end, he looked back on his race of faith and proclaimed… “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.” (2 Timothy 4:7). Paul didn’t understand what it meant to “coast” in the Christian life. He never saw faith as anything but like running a marathon – one that requires discipline and endurance. The author of Hebrews tells us in the first verse of chapter 12, that we’re all in this race. The question is, are you running? Are you coasting? Are you sitting on the sidelines? Are you tired? Are you ready to quit? No matter where you find yourself, you can get back into the race and run to win with the help of the words in Hebrews 12. What do you win? Jesus! Forever! John Piper sums it up perfectly: "The race of faith is life’s journey for the Christian. Imagine what would happen if we looked to Jesus every day. Every weight would fall off and every sin would untangle from us. Each look at Jesus would strengthen us to endure and finish well. He waits for us on the other side. He is our crown, and we will be with him forever. Every huff, every twinge of pain, and every prolonged day on earth is worth patiently enduring the journey to get to the finish line — to get to Jesus.”
3/7/2021 - Because of Jesus’ Sacrifice - Hebrews 10:19-39
But recall the former days when, after you were enlightened, you endured a hard struggle with sufferings, sometimes being publicly exposed to reproach and affliction, and sometimes being partners with those so treated. For you had compassion on those in prison, and you joyfully accepted the plundering of your property, since you knew that you yourselves had a better possession and an abiding one. Therefore do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God you may receive what is promised. For, “Yet a little while, and the coming one will come and will not delay; but my righteous one shall live by faith, and if he shrinks back, my soul has no pleasure in him.” But we are not of those who shrink back and are destroyed, but of those who have faith and preserve their souls. Hebrews 10:32-39 Imagine these words written to the Illuminate body. We are not losing our property because of our faith nor are we being imprisoned. We must not miss this teachable moment though. The author of Hebrews is commending them because they chose compassion over consumption. They chose Godliness and it cost them their possessions in this world. Why did they do this? Because they knew something. They knew their real and lasting possessions are not on this earth. So they helped the brothers in prison perhaps bringing them food and blankets. As a result of that help they lost their homes, their businesses, their jobs. And this happens today. Christian voices and businesses are being cancelled and mocked. Perhaps the church will soon follow. That’s ok, we're in good company. They cancelled Jesus but he did have and will have the last word. And then there are the countless stories from the Middle East of entire Christian families being hunted by gunshot and forced to leave their Christian villages. The remarkable thing about those first-century believers is that they accepted mistreatment joyfully. It doesn’t make any sense to the world. But their thinking was not worldly. Instead, the author tells you what they were thinking. They believed they had something better and permanent awaiting them in heaven. The author reminds them of what they already knew: God rewards those who seek him. So remember that former time when you were completely sold out for Christ; you were putting everything on the line. That’s the kind of faith you need now. When once you’ve looked back, then look forward. (Verse 36-39.) I find this really helpful. He doesn’t say focus on your current circumstances. Instead he says, “Remember the past when your faith was strong and remember your glorious future.” He doesn’t tell them to think about right now. He says look beyond the now and put your hope in the faithful promises of God. That might be the message for you today. I know in my own life this is so true. By focusing on the current problem, it grows and grows and crowds out my faith. Instead, I need to remember former times of faith and I need to remember the promise from God of my glorious future so I can keep the faith.
2/28/2021 - Now I See It - Hebrews 11
Growing up I took pride in the fact that I did not need glasses. My three siblings, as well as my mom and dad, all wore glasses, and I viewed them as inferior. I didn’t realize any problem with my vision until I started driving. I wondered why it was so difficult to read street signs, but I just assumed that everyone had the same problem. It wasn’t until someone pointed out how timid of a driver I was at night, that I realized other people did not have the same issues I did. Turns out I was more like my family than I thought, I needed glasses. However, once I got glasses the whole world opened up to me. I could drive at night with so much more confidence. Being able to see clearly what was in front of me made all the difference in my driving. In Hebrews 11, we are given the testimonies of men and women from the Old Testament, who were commended by God because of their faith. What the author of Hebrews points out, is that all of these great people of faith, died having greeted the promise of God from afar (Hebrews 11:13). Though they could not see it at the time, the promise they were waiting for, was Jesus. If they could have faith in God while not being able to see the promise, how much more confidence can we have while we are living on this side of the cross? This confidence in God’s faithfulness works itself out through our daily obedience to God. God is constantly calling us to and from things. These could be big things, like career moves, or family decisions, or these may be smaller everyday practices and habits. To mature in Jesus is to respond in obedience with faith to God’s Word.
2/21/2021 - Feeling Better Things to Come - Hebrews 6:1-12
I was spending time the other day with friends who have toddlers. Little kids can be so darn funny and cute. I think it's because of their immaturity. They say and do whatever comes to mind with little regard for the consequences. There are parallels in our spiritual lives. We start our journey with Jesus as spiritual babies. We may not know much, and we may ask simple questions, but we are drinking the milk of foundational things. This is really good. Soon we are ready for a wider diet leading to healthy growth. But what if we decide to stop growing? What's the big deal? Does it really matter?Yes.Immature faith will make you unsure of your salvation. It will make you sluggish and as we read last week, lazy. Those who turn away from the basics of the faith, in response to doubts or disobedience, are beyond any rational arguments. Those who do not move beyond the basics of the faith risk straying from the truth, which is disastrous. The ancient Israelites are an example of what happens when disobedience and doubt replace obedience and trust. The author of Hebrews refers to this as unproductive land that must be burnt in order to be restored.Here's the thing - you have something amazing awaiting you! The promises of God. A future that is unlike what you can imagine. The creator of the universe has prepared a place for you and it is amazing. The best part is not the environment, the best part is being in the presence of the one who died for you to make it all possible. So let's hold fast to Jesus who is described as the "anchor of our souls." Isn't that the perfect description? It tells you that life will have storms and the ship that is your life will be tossed around without a stable hold. So hold on my brothers and sisters, your glorious final destination awaits!
2/14/2021 - How's Your Diet? - Hebrews 5
You need milk, not solid food, for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. Hebrews 5:13-14 I grew up drinking a lot of milk. The good stuff. Whole. Milk is necessary and good - especially for babies. But a constant diet of milk will inhibit growth. The author of Hebrews tells us mature Christians put the word of God into practice constantly and therefore they discern between what is right and wrong. Immature believers have the words go in one ear and out the other. There’s no stopping in the heart and mind. Most of your daily decisions are not spoken to explicitly in the Bible. Should you have chicken or tuna for lunch? Should you wear a jacket or a sweater? There are however many moments in your day when you will be faced with moral decisions. What programming should I watch? What should I say about this person? How should I spend my money? Sometimes people don't understand weightier things because they have a hard time discerning right from wrong. No need to discuss how the sovereignty of God and the free will of man interact until we discuss how your anger is tearing your family apart. We need some self-evaluation. Has your hearing become dull? If we were to put spiritual lenses on, what would be revealed as your spiritual age, your maturity? Once again, the author of Hebrews refuses to leave us where we are.
2/7/2021 - Life is a Journey from Weariness to Rest - Hebrews 4
I feel so much better if I get eight hours of sleep. The thing is, it just doesn't happen. We can forsake our rest because of packed schedules or worries about our families, jobs, finances, ministries and just about everything else. These are areas in which God desires to lead us to rest, rather than leave us to trust in futile works of the flesh. You see, God's rest is more than physical. It gives rest to the soul. The promise that still stands is the promise of salvation through God’s provision—Jesus Christ. He alone can provide the eternal rest of salvation through His blood shed on the cross for the remission of sins. God’s rest is special. It is in the spiritual realm, the rest of salvation. Faith, the author of Hebrews goes on to assert, is the key to entering God’s rest. The Hebrews had the gospel preached to them. However, just as the Israelites knew the truth about God the messages were of “no value to them, because those who heard did not combine it with faith” (Hebrews 4:2). Some had heard the good news of Christ, but they rejected it for lack of faith. So let us learn from their error. Let us rest in Him, who has done all the work for our salvation and sanctification, and who promises to lead us to eternal rest!
1/31/2021 - Look To Jesus - Hebrews 2
"Look to Jesus," "fix your eyes on Jesus," "see Jesus." The author of Hebrews is attempting to emphasize something. The only way to thrive in this life is to focus on Jesus. The second chapter of his sermon contains a vision that will change the way you live - See Jesus as your "merciful and sympathetic high priest." Back in the day, a Jewish priest was someone you went to for help. So let me explain this to you by virtue of what Jesus experienced as the Son of God - He faced temptation directly from Satan. Therefore no one can say to him, “Jesus you just don’t understand what it’s like to live in a fallen world and to be tempted by sin.” Jesus' response: “No, actually I do know what it’s like to be tempted by Satan himself.” Jesus got hungry, tired, fatigued and wearied. This is why the gospel writers tell us that Jesus would often go to a solitary place and pray. He knows what it’s like to lose a loved one. He wept at the death of his friend Lazarus. When most Jewish men his age were married with a family a home and a career; Jesus knew what it was to be single, a virgin and homeless. He experienced betrayal and rejection by his closest friends. He knows what it’s like to be stabbed in the back by someone he loved. He had close personal relationships disrupted and left unresolved. He knew discouragement in ministry when the disciples just wouldn’t get it. When you go through pain and you want to talk to someone who went through it all, talk to Jesus. He understands.
1/24/2021 - Jesus Explains God - Hebrews 1:1-4
The book of Hebrews is a Christological masterpiece. There might be no higher view of Jesus found in the Bible. And that's exactly what early Christians needed. You see, like us at times, they were asking the question – If God loves us why is our life so hard? The answer – the Christian life is a journey from weariness to rest, it’s a journey that started with being alienated from God to being in the presence of God. And here’s how you make it; you’ve got to fix your eyes on Jesus. Through Jesus’ words and actions we hear and see what matters most to every human being—that God the Father loves us unconditionally. "God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life." John 3:16 Even at our worst, God loves us... John continues, “For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him” (verse 17). The Father sent Jesus out of his love and his commitment to save us. And when Jesus completed this act of love, he sat down in a place of prominence, at the right hand of God. There's another big question in the world today. What is God like? The author of Hebrews tells us the answer: Jesus reveals who God is because he is the exact imprint and reflection of the character of God. The reason why Jesus is the exact reflection of God is because they share the exact same nature. I hope you see how personal God has become. By taking on flesh and blood he's telling you this, "I really want to be in your life."
1/17/2021 - Some Things Never Change - God's Word!
The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of our God will stand forever. Isaiah 40:8 The Bible is unique. No other book has been attacked like it, scrutinized like it or criticized like it. Neither has there ever been another book that has stood its ground like the Bible. The critics have passed on through the centuries, but the Bible stands as strong today as ever. It is an amazing book. When we say the Bible is authoritative what we're really saying is that God is authoritative because it contains His words. So why is there so much hatred against the Bible? Perhaps we can see part of the reason in a statement Jesus made: "And this is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their deeds were evil" (John 3:19). Jesus was referring to Himself as the light coming into the world. The Bible represents the words of Christ. If people hated Him, they also hate His words. This is because His word exposes evil and shines light upon the sinful activities of mankind. People who love their sin will despise the Bible. The Bible still stands. Regardless of all the hatred manifested toward it through the ages, it is still here to be reckoned with. This fact alone ought to make us think about the importance of the Bible. Have you ever thought about the Bible in this way: If a book were to be given to us by God, then we should expect that it endures. And this is exactly what God promises. 700 years later Peter preached the same words...for “All flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of grass. The grass withers, and the flower falls, but the word of the Lord remains forever.” And this word is the good news that was preached to you!
1/10/2021 - Some Things Never Change - God Himself!
Last Sunday we talked about the massive changes that have occurred as a result of 2020. One thing is for sure, things will continue to change and that change is going to come faster and faster and some of these changes are going to shock us and some will encourage us but if you know the unchanging God you are ready for whatever happens. The story is told of Lloyd Douglas, author of, "The Robe". When he was a university student, he lived in a boarding house. Downstairs on the first floor of that boarding house was an elderly retired music teacher. He was very infirm and could not leave his apartment. Douglas took a liking to this man and every morning they had a ritual they would go through together. Lloyd Douglas would come downstairs and he would open the man's door and ask him, "Well, sir, what's the good news today"? And the old man would pick up his tuning fork and tap it on the side of his wheelchair and hold it up and say, "That's middle C. It was middle C yesterday, it will be middle C tomorrow, and it will be middle C 1000 years from now. The tenor upstairs sings flat, the piano across the hall is out of tune but, my friend, this is middle C and that's the good news for today". Christian, Jesus Christ is your middle C. He is the same yesterday, today, and forever. The world in which we live is out of tune. The prognosticators got it all wrong. Everything we look at seems messed up but we take our tuning fork and we thrust it against a hard surface and we remind ourselves, "God is our middle C". We serve and love an unchanging God.
1/3/2021 - Some Things Never Change - God's Love For You!
2020 has taken a lot from us. Suddenly, we realized how quickly things can change. Some have lost freedoms, jobs, family interaction and even personal relationships. You need to be reminded that some things never change. For example, God's love for you never comes to an end. And yet, many don't live in this love. Instead they continue loving that which can so easily be taken away and are therefore discouraged. So why would we anyone ignore God's love? I’ll tell you why. Because we are very adept and misplacing our affections in this world. The pursuit of “hook ups” has become normative. For many, social media is little more than a love affair with attention. What’s fueling this? People trying desperately to have these questions answered: Am I lovable? Will someone find me attractive? What will cure my loneliness? "If I can just find the answer to that then I’ll be ok." There’s a story in the Old Testament that illustrates this well. It has as much drama as any "reality show" today. A man named Jacob falls in love with a beautiful woman named Rachel. The Bible describes her as being beautiful in both form and face. In other words, she was very attractive. Jacob falls hard for her. He asks her father Laban for her hand in marriage. He agrees but only after working for him for seven years. But Jacob is so smitten he says, "No problem, she’s worth every minute of the wait." Finally, the day comes and Jacob ends up getting a taste of his own medicine. This plot twist is one for the ages. You see Rachel's father duped Jacob' in the exact same way Jacob cheated his own father Isaac. Jacob loved the place of prominence. He loved a woman for her attractiveness. Misplaced love caused Jacob a lot of heartache in life. It also disrupted the lives of those around him. His life is a testimony to the difference between misplaced love lost and true love found.
12/20/2020 - Advent Hope
As human beings, we need things in our future that give us excitement and optimism. I actually believe God implanted within each one of us this innate need. Of course the ultimate fulfillment of this is the hope of heaven. The Christmas story reminds us that heaven is attainable through faith in Jesus. Therefore hope and faith are inseparable. The author of Hebrews explains. "Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." Hebrews 11:1 Additionally, we have hope in this life here and now. The Scriptures invite us to come to Jesus and confidently ask for help in our time of need. Hebrews 4:16 tells us, “to come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in our time of need” (Hebrews 4:16). Things that leave us feeling powerless and hopeless come in many forms. With Christ’s strength you can overcome life's biggest obstacles, and faith in Jesus gives hope and help to overcome: “and this is the victory that overcomes the world, even our faith” (1 John 5:4). Have you ever faced a giant in life only to think it's too big and you can't handle it? We do not need some kind of "God supplement" to our own strength, rather, we need His strength in us to do what we need to do. And he always gives it. 2 Corithians 12:9 says, “My grace is sufficient for you: for my strength is made perfect in weakness.” Seeing our weakness as the entry point of God’s strength gives access to His power! When we put our faith and hope in Jesus, it not only gives us help, strength, and power for today, but it also gives us hope for life after death. It is a confident expectation of the ultimate “tomorrow.” Have you been feeling hopeless? All you need to do is ask God for what he has already made possible. “May the God of Hope fill you with all joy and peace, as you trust in Him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit” (Romans 15:13).
12/13/2020 - Advent Love
What's the most important thing? This question was put to Jesus. His answer seems rather simple - Love God and love people. And he said to him, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Matthew 22:37-39 Loving God and loving others are intertwined. In other words, you can't love God without loving those around you - especially your brothers and sisters in Christ. Jesus explains the importance of this... "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another: just as I have loved you, you also are to love one another. By this all people will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.” John 13:34-35 Christmas gives you the motivation because the birth of Jesus reveals God's love for you. "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life." John 3:16 Illuminate, you have a done an amazing job of loving others. As your pastor, I am so very proud of you. This Sunday we celebrate all the love you've shown through your generosity and faithfulness in 2020!
12/6/2020 - Advent Rest - Matthew 11:28-30
Do you sometimes find it hard to fall asleep at night because of the things racing through your mind? Thoughts that are angry, fearful and anxious often accompany our last and first moments when our heads are on the pillow. Perhaps personal resentment is the biggest taker of mind space. What do you do with all this? Jesus reminds believers to make an exchange. "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.” Matthew 11:28-30 A yoke is an instrument used to attach two working animals together. Where one goes, so goes the other. Notice Jesus doesn't simply say, "Take off all your yokes." As if to say, "Be free!" Instead, he says, "Take off whatever it is that is currently leading you and exchange it for my leadership." In other words, we are all led by something that isn't giving us what we truly desire. Is this true for you Christian? Are you still wearing the yoke of social media's opinion of you? What about the yoke of the culture's demands? How about the yoke of salvation by works? Give up your desire to live life on your terms and let Jesus lead you and you’ll find the rest you’ve been looking for. I know this sounds crazy in this modern world. Because we’re constantly being told, “Don’t give away your authority! Let no one control you!” Jesus says, if you want inner freedom then give up your freedom. If you want to find your life, lose it. Take my yoke, I will lead you. You don’t have to prove yourself, you don’t have to carry the burden of guilt, or pain alone.